This study aimed to describe and evaluate dengue patterns after the implementation of the National Dengue Control Plan (PNCD). Incidence rates were analyzed and correlated with previous rates and climatic, demographic, and socioeconomic variables for the Brazilian municipalities that were targeted for priority dengue control. We conducted descriptive studies of epidemiological indicators after the implementation of the national plan and a statistical analysis considering the incidence rates from the previous period and climatic, demographic, and socioeconomic variables, using multiple linear regression. We found a significant association between dengue incidence during the period following implementation of the PNCD (2003-2006) as compared to pre-implementation (2001-2002), after adjusting for geographic and climatic indicators. Our findings suggest that the plan’s objectives were not fully achieved. In conclusion, the persistent occurrence of dengue epidemics requires changes and reevaluation of current strategies, along with improvements in the dengue surveillance system.