This study aims to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disorders in schoolchildren living in Ouro Preto City, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population-based sampling of schoolchildren (6–14 years old), randomly selected and stratified by the proportion of students according to age and gender in each schools of the city. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometric variables as well as physical activity and family history were used in a logistic regression model for obesity or arterial hypertension. Out of 780 schoolchildren sampled, the risk of obesity was greater in subjects presenting high triglyceride and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and those whose parents were obese, whilst the risk of hypertension was high in obese subjects and those who presented low birth weight. It was observed that 44.4% of the schoolchildren were exposed to two or three cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and 8.2% were exposed to four or six factors. These findings should be considered in preventive measures to reduce the future risk for CVD among schoolchildren in Brazil.